Tuesday, June 2, 2020

What is High Stakes Testing

The phrase ‘high-stakes’ conjures up images of a smoke filled casino. At 6AM on a Tuesday, a desperate gambler bets his last stack of chips on a game of blackjack. He’s dealt a 17. â€Å"Hit me,† he says in a shaky voice†¦ Though high-stakes testing is a world away from the Las Vegas blackjack tables, a common thread ties both activities together: a lot rides on the outcome. Does the gambler get to take home a fortune? Do you get into your dream college? In this article I’ll discuss high-stakes testing in the United States, and why the SAT/ACT are prime examples. So if you’re getting ready to ‘roll the dice’ with either of these tests, take a few minutes to learn about why they’re so important for your future. What Makes a Test High-Stakes? First of all, there is no such thing as an official high-stakes test. Have you ever felt anxious about doing well on a Math test? That test was a high-stakes test. Has passing a class all come down to the final exam? That exam was a high-stakes test. For you or your peers in high school, AP exams are high-stakes tests because a good score will reduce the cost of college later on. Mention high-stakes testing to just about anyone, though, and you’ll hear about the SAT/ACT. Young Americans are told over and over that both tests are the key that will unlock their futures. High scores are necessary to gain admission to selective colleges. Yet are there any other reasons why these tests are high-stakes? Let’s find out. Scholarships A variety of scholarships use SAT/ACT scores as a determining factor for awarding money. If you are considering scholarships to pay for college, here are a few avenues of research to see if your scores make the cut: State lottery scholarships College merit scholarships Miscellaneous scholarships Course Placement You may think that only a high AP score will let you skip a class or two in college, but that’s no longer the case. Both the ACT and SAT II Subject Tests influence course placement decisions. These policies vary wildly between colleges, so do your research in advance. Here is an example so that you can see how a college explains its specific requirements. Also, even if your dream college doesn’t require SAT Subject Tests, submitting scores can make your application shine brightly when compared to similar applicants who didn’t submit scores. There is one added benefit of using SAT/ACT scores to place yourself into college courses. A majority of community colleges and state universities use test software (ACCUPLACER and/or COMPASS) to place incoming students into English, Math, and science courses. These tests are highly unreliable in predicting student success. So if an admissions counselor asks if you would like to take either of these tests, just say no and have your college use your SAT/ACT scores for course placement. Final Thoughts Doing your best on the SAT/ACT can have a lot of fringe benefits in addition to getting in to your dream school. Yet don’t count your chickens before they hatch. Until you have the score(s) you need to succeed, focus on preparing for test day. Good luck preparing for the big day, high-stakes testing scholars. See you next time!

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Love Muse Solution Proposal - 1240 Words

Jpz777 05/12/2013 Order # A2095998 LA_202_OL3 04/28/2013 Instructor : Trista Martin Sae Mi Rhee #1 Draft Love Muse Solution Proposal Love is a powerful emotion that can serve as ones muse, providing the perfect inspiration for creativity, but if shaken, the elusive muse of love can easily evaporate. Situations of personal misery, a partner using unhappiness to manipulate the other, discrepancies in the balance of power between two individuals, different interests, unresolved personal issues, and unfulfilled expectations are among the most common relationship problems. All of these, if fostered and unresolved, are capable of inciting betrayal in seemingly loving relationships. Betrayal, in turn, leads to resentments which are harbored internally, and resentments create a sense of division that causes the muse of love to vanish. Modern observers of intimacy and its role in creative expression have found that if you want a relationship that maintains deep emotional and physical connection, a relationship where you rarely feel lonely with each other, a relationship that is always evolving and growing toward deeper int imacy, then you likely have to be willing to work at it by healing your own issues (Paul 2). The muse provided by a loving relationship can disappear if that love becomes broken. For an artistically inclined person who has found his or her muse, the most pressing problem is discovering the proper way to compromise and build this invaluable relationshipShow MoreRelatedPoem Analysis On His Coy Mistress By Andrew Marvell1319 Words   |  6 Pages Andrew Marvell wrote a unique love poem in â€Å"To His Coy Mistress,† as this poem expresses far more than one might expect or even perceive upon the first reading. Enveloped in this ode to a cherished muse are expressions of the â€Å"carpe diem† philosophy, laments about the impending doom of death, and hopes to transcend contemporary abilities to live forever in the love of another. While Marvell’s primary purpose in writing this piece may have been to woo a young maiden, he made a far more significantRead MoreEssay a bout Haste and Impulse in Romeo and Juliet1608 Words   |  7 Pages Another character that can’t keep a strong hold on his emotions is Tybalt. 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And while the passionate romance of young Capulet and young Montague is essential to the play, it isRead MoreRepositioning Budweiser to Women4753 Words   |  20 Pagesand your course section#. MKT 2284 Marketing Research Courtney Groenewoud, Eric Williamson, Natalie Neville, Ashleigh Milne and Gen Blackburn The Fab Five MKT 2284 Marketing Research Major Research Assignment: Deliverable #1 The Research Proposal Table of Contents Formal Letter†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Page 2 Background †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Pages 3-4 Marketing research problem Definition †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Pages 5-7 Research Objectives and HypothesisRead MoreLangston Hughes and Countee Cullen: Perspective on Religion4176 Words   |  17 Pagesdivine inspiration of the poet is appropriate in a poem which combines themes from Classical and Biblical sources, for both traditions affirm the ability of supernatural beings to speak through humans. The Greeks called these deities of inspiration Muses while the Biblical God inspires prophets with warnings for humans. A similar God bids Cullen to sing. In the end, the poem offers more than the personal perspective of a Black poet. It speaks not just of the Black condition but of the human conditionRead MoreDeath of Fray Salvador Montano, Conquistador of Negros8763 Words   |  36 Pagespopulation had not fallen. Then just when the locusts should have come swarming into the kaingin fields, they had not and he should have known why. They were making love like locusts. The people were coming into his church and confessing that they had made love like locusts the night before and the night before that. They had, in fact, been making love like locusts every night for the past week. Once, many years ago, when he was new to this mission village, there had been a pestilence of frogs but it hadRead MoreCleanth Brookss Essay Irony as a Principle of Structure9125 Words   |  37 Pagesmethod — and by that method alone. The concrete answers to particular practical problems lie outside the framework of these essays. The task they propose is to make us aware of Marxist method, to throw light on it as an unendingly fertile source of solutions to otherwise intractable dilemmas. This is also the purpose of the copious quotations from the works of Marx and Engels. 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It was originally planned to provide 20% of the energy for the Olympic Park and Village from renewable technologies; however, this may now be as little as 9%.[120] Proposals to meet the original target included large-scale on-site wind turbines and hydroelectric generators in the River Thames. These plans were scrapped for safety reasons.[121] The focus has since moved to installing solar panels on some buildings, andRead More65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 147256 Words   |  190 Pagescontacting their little siblings. I was extremely proud that our efforts had enhanced the programs impact, and I felt for the first time that I had meaningfully, connected with my community. This experience helped me realize that my drive to imp lement solutions quickly can cause me to overlook certain details when ana.. lyzing problems. Had I replaced inactive volunteers based on my original assumption that they were lazy and unconcerned, I would have missed the opportunity to devise the plan that jump

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Management and Organizational Behaviour- myassignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about theManagement and Organizational Behaviour forGlobalization. Answer: Introduction This section of the essay will discuss the general view regarding why contemporary organizations consider globalization and global business as a significant issue. It will further provide an overview of the discussions made in the essay i.e. naming the four stages in the phase model of globalization along with specifying the examples used for the identification of strengths and weaknesses of each stage of the phase model. Background The term global business will be discussed with the help of definitions of renowned authors. The term globalization will be discussed by providing its definition and highlighting how it affects the corporate world (Irani, 2011). Discussion in detail regarding why modern organizations give importance to the process of globalization and doing business globally (Okoye Nwaigwe, 2015). Detailed discussion will be made regarding the various stages in the phase model of globalization which include exporting, cooperative contracts, strategic alliances and wholly owned affiliates with relevant examples. Strengths and weaknesses of each stage in the phase of globalization will be identified and discussed along with its impact on businesses (Muhammad, Faheem, Dost Abdullah, 2011). Conclusion All the key points discussed in the essay will be summarized specifying that the stages in the phase model of globalization impacts the development of businesses. It will be specified that there are both strengths and weaknesses of every stage of the phase model of globalization and that can be skipped by businesses. At the end, some recommendation will be provided regarding how the risks in each stage of the model can be avoided and its successful implementation can be made. Summarizing and Evaluating Articles from Scholarly Journals Title and Article Reference Irani, F. N. H. A. 2011. Globalization and Challenges; What are the globalization's contemporary issues?. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. Vol 1, no. 6, pp. 216-218. Aim/ Purpose of Article The aim of the article is to study the contemporary issues of globalization and its challenges. Sample, location, method of data collection and analysis A descriptive approach is adopted for the article for explain globalization and its challenges. Findings/Interpretations reported in the article Global integration is increasing at a rapid pace. The changes in transportation, communication and computer technology has provided new impulse to the globalization process and has brought independence in the world. As a consequence, economies, social movements and laws are establishing at international level. Significance/contribution of the article in relation to your other articles and your topic The findings of the article are different from the general view that the world economy is in progressing phase as a result of globalization. The contemporary issues arising as a result have also been highlighted in the article. Strengths of the article The article is well researched which takes into consideration every aspect that fosters globalization. Weaknesses of the article Detailed analysis of the challenges has not been provided in the article which does not provide clarity to the reader. Quotes from the article that you plan to use in your assignment The phenomenon of increased integration of the world economy as evidenced by the growth of international trade and factor mobility (Irani, 2011, p. 217) Quotes from the article that you plan to use in your assignment But for billions of the world's people, business-driven globalization means uprooting old ways of life and threatening livelihoods and cultures (Irani, 2011, p. 217) Quotes from the article that you plan to use in your assignment Industrial emergence of worldwide production markets and broader access to a range of foreign products for consumers and companies has increased a lot during the globalization process ((Irani, 2011, p. 216) Title and Article Reference Okoye, H. N. and Nwaigwe, L. C. 2015. The impact of globalization to business and the world economy. International Journal of Business and Management Review. Vol 3, No. 5, pp. 17-32. Aim/ Purpose of Article The aim of the article is to determine the impact of globalization to business and the world economy. Sample, location, method of data collection and analysis The article adopts Historical Research Design. Also, developmental study and Ex-Post- Facto Research Design is applied to some extent. Findings/Interpretations reported in the article Industrialized nations benefit from globalization through marketing network and expanded demand. Developing economies gain through improved welfare packages, exchange of expertise and improved commodities. War against injustice, racial discrimination and religious fanaticism is also assisted with the help of globalization. The effect of rescue operations, international disasters and humanitarian services are also eliminated through globalization. Significance/contribution of the article in relation to your other articles and your topic The findings of the article provide a deeper knowledge regarding the positive and negative aspects of globalization and do not present the biased view of the author. Strengths of the article The article does not present the biased view of authors regarding globalization and its impact as both positive and negative aspects are covered. Weaknesses of the article The article places more emphasis on the impact of globalization on world economy rather than the impact of globalization on businesses. Quotes from the article that you plan to use in your assignment The economies of the world have linked up through expanding international trade in services and also in primary and manufactured goods (Okoye Nwaigwe, 2015, p. 19) Quotes from the article that you plan to use in your assignment In some cases, they establish new plants in the foreign country for economic reasons as sending finished products would make it very expensive and unaffordable to the other country (Okoye Nwaigwe, 2015, p. 19) Quotes from the article that you plan to use in your assignment Information technology therefore includes all the media involved in the dissemination of ideas and information leading to the production of goods and services required by management and business generally to enhance quality products, as at, and when needed (Okoye Nwaigwe, 2015, p. 21) Title and Article Reference Muhammad, A.C., Faheem, M.A., Dost, M.K.B. and Abdullah, I., 2011. Globalization and its impacts on the world Economic development.International Journal of Business and social science, Vol2, No. 23, pp. 291-297. Aim/ Purpose of Article The purpose of the article is to measure the effect of globalization on the fastest growing industries of the world. Sample, location, method of data collection and analysis Literature review has been performed by the authors on the scholarly articles relating to the topic globalization and economic development. Findings/Interpretations reported in the article The findings of the article provide the five stages of economic development and the effect of globalization on the economic development of the world. The article provides that the industrial sector along with employment get influenced by globalization. The use of information technology becomes necessary for corporations due to the global competitive environment. The picture of world trade, international institutions and global market has changed at a rapid pace resulting in increased standard of living of people. Significance/contribution of the article in relation to your other articles and your topic There are a number of articles on globalization but they do not explain its impact on the economic development. This article explains the effect of globalization on global markets, international institutions, foreign direct investment and various other aspects. It aims to find out the true sense of globalization. Strengths of the article Strong literature has been reviewed by the authors which makes the article well researched. Weaknesses of the article The article does not reflect the views and opinions of the authors on the topic. Quotes from the article that you plan to use in your assignment Globalization has given a new thought to the businesses worldwide. A lot of Strategic changes have been occurred in the businesses. Now target market for businesses is not only their home land, but the overall world (Muhammad, Faheem, Dost Abdullah, 2011, p. 291) Quotes from the article that you plan to use in your assignment In the present global competitive environment it is a necessary to use the information technology innovatively and skillfully (Muhammad, Faheem, Dost Abdullah, 2011, p.294) Quotes from the article that you plan to use in your assignment Now in this era of globalization, the focus of industries is to produce foreign commodities and to facilitate the consumers in all over the World (Muhammad, Faheem, Dost Abdullah, 2011, p.295) References Irani, F. N. H. A. 2011. Globalization and Challenges; What are the globalization's contemporary issues?. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. Vol 1(6), pp. 216-218. Muhammad, A.C., Faheem, M.A., Dost, M.K.B. and Abdullah, I., 2011. Globalization and its impacts on the world Economic development.International Journal of Business and social science, Vol2(23), pp. 291-297. Okoye, H. N. and Nwaigwe, L. C. 2015. The impact of globalization to business and the world economy. International Journal of Business and Management Review. Vol 3(5), pp. 17-32.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

The Roman People Were A Overly Proud And Highly Religious People, Whos

The Roman people were a overly proud and highly religious people, whose sense of identity as romans came primarily from their accomplishments in war and their respect of their ancestors. By examining Livy's The Early History of Rome, we can identify these traits through roman patterns of behavior and the foundation myths that their nation is built upon. The romans repeatedly display not only an overdeveloped personal sense of pride, but an exceptional pride in their nation - taking precedence over even family loyalty. The first example of this Roman pride is seen in the very first foundation myth of Rome, the tale of Romulus and Remus. The second of the two versions of this story tells how after the auspices have indicated Romulus as the rightful leader of this new nation, "Remus, by way of jeering at his brother, jumped over the half-built walls of the new settlement, whereupon Romulus killed him in a fit of rage, adding the threat, ?So perish whoever else shall overleap my battlements( P.40 Livy) .'" Not only do we see a foreshadowing of Rome's violent nature in this tale, but it seems to indicate a strong belief in the superiority of this ( barely existant ) nation, one that necessitates a national pride of greater magnitude than the even the strength of the loyalty between brothers. This kind of loyalty to country, as displayed by the Rome's founder, certainly sets a precendent for later roman citizens. Not surprisingly then, we see this same kind of pride with similar consequences later on following a battle between Rome and the Albans. The victory had been decided, not by a full scale war, but by a contest between three men from each country ( two sets of three brothers ). This contest left Rome victorious and five people dead - only one roman brother stood living. The victor returned to rome carrying the ?triple spoils' and,"slung across [ his ] shoulders was a cloak, and [ his sister ] recognized it as the cloak she had made with her own hand for her lover. The sight overcame her : she loosened her hair and, in a voice choked with tears, called her dead lovers name. That his sister should dare to grieve at the very moment of his own triumph and in the midst of national rejoicing filled horatius with such uncontrollable rage that he drew his sword and stabbed her to the heart( Livy 62)." Again we see the word "rage" used to describe this similarly extreme exhibition of extreme national pride. Back in the foundation myth of Romulus and Remus, we see another aspect of Roman pride. There is some indication that, In Livy's time, there was some suspicion that Greek infulence in Rome was detrimental to Roman society. Livy seems to emphasize the absence of any kind of formal schooling ( which would have been greek ) in the adolescence of both Romulus and Remus ( P.38 Livy ) The idea that Romulus in particular, was a self-made man, shows that Rome owes nothing to previous and other nations like Greece and so the pride of such a great nation is all theirs. There is plenty of evidence that Rome was always a highly religious nation. From even as early as the founding of the nation we see their dependance on auguries of the gods to make important decisions - namely the choice between Romulus and Remus as their leader. " As the brothers were twins and all question of seniority was thereby precluded, they determined to ask the tutelary gods of the countryside to declare by augury which of them should govern the new town once it was founded, and give his name to it ( p.40 Livy )." More than any one other aspect of Roman behavior, I feel that recognition and respect of the ways of their ancestors as the ways of ?True' Romans was the most primary source from which Romans defined there identity. This respect stemmed from oral tradition and early historians works that have not survived to us, but which Livy owes his knowledge. From the respect of great deeds that made their cultural history so worth of pride, came their habits of

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Genomic Health Company Case Analysis Essay Example

Genomic Health Company Case Analysis Essay Example Genomic Health Company Case Analysis Essay Genomic Health Company Case Analysis Essay Genomic Health company was formed in the twelvemonth 2000 by among other peoples Randy Scott, who was one of the Key laminitiss of the company, it president and the CEO. The vision on which Genomic Health was found was to venture in new research countries in the field of biotechnology and cistron research with an purpose to do a discovery in new research findings that would enable individualized medical specialty that would turn to challenges faced in direction of chest malignant neoplastic disease. Earlier on Randy Scott, so as the co-founder of Incyte Corporation has resigned from that company after the board declined his petition to perpetrate Incyte Corporation resources in chase of individualized medical specialty research. After origin of Genomic Health Company, Randy Scott and his squad of five other people who shared same vision and were passionate about revolutionising health care began seriously researching on this field from where he had left during his clip at Incyte Corporation. After 3 old ages of research and a cost of $ 30 million, the company come up with the first of its sort Oncotype DXtm, a merchandise that would enable to find the chance of return of chest malignant neoplastic disease among patient and hence provide patients with informed picks on whether to take up chemotherapy intervention after surgery based on their cistron make-up. : The fact that Genomic Health was able to establish such a radical merchandise within a short frame of clip can be attributed to the Randy Scotts leading, squad vision, handiness of fiscal resources and the wealth of experience and cognition from the squad members. Randy Scott holding undertaken initial research in the country during his clip at Incyte Corporation meant he has overcome the initial dentition jobs that would hold been associated with the early phases of the research. After Co-founding Genomic Health with fellow research workers Joffre Baker and Steve Shark who were at the clip working at another company Genentech, that besides carried research in the countries of chest malignant neoplastic disease. Randy Scott embarked on enrolling two other research workers every bit qualified and experienced. It is this combination of this squad abilities and experience that united to do it possible for Genomic Health to come up with Oncotype DXtm, a merchandise that proved more effectual than was ab initio thought during it pilot clinical tests among instances. It provided the ability of wellness practicians for the first clip to find with a immense significance degree if breast malignant neoplastic disease return was likely to happen among patients. Besides Randy Scott has at the clip construct up and compiled a database of resource on cistron research country that was really helpful at the clip of research. But after the impressive pilot consequences of Oncotype DXtm merchandise that was really convincing, Genomic Health faced a challenge on how best to present the their diagnostic testing in the market at low monetary value, that would enable market incursion and at the same clip warrant return on the dearly-won research procedure at a sensible clip frame. In visible radiation of other viing diagnostic merchandises that were low priced and which were favored by the medical practicians, Randy Scott and the squad knew that Oncotype DXtm merchandise would turn out difficult introducing and take clip before it could be widely used. Furthermore Oncotype DXtm was a new merchandise that was unknown non merely to the medical fraternity but besides to the population at big who would be the consumers. Possibly it with this bow sight that has made Randy Scott to enroll Pat Terry to concentrate on Cancer protagonism community, but even this was non plenty to turn to these market topographic point challenges. In about the same clip the authorities Torahs that regulated and licensed the nosologies merchandises were amended to let merchandises in the market that met and provided grounds of partial tests. This in consequence aggravated constellating in market topographic point of diagnostic merchandises that were non needfully effectual but which handiness and use by the medical forces was pegged on their low cost. Other challenges that faced Genomic Health was the demand to transport out more clinical tests in order to to the full formalize the consequences and ability of Oncotype DXtm merchandise to foretell chest malignant neoplastic disease return, but clinical tests required clip and committedness of extra resources. In pricing of the Oncotype DXtm merchandise the quandary was in striking the right balance instead than hazard low pricing that would compromise return on investing, or high pricing that would close off most of the possible consumers. Another country was in reimbursement of the use of the Oncotype DXtm merchandise by the insurance companies who harmonizing to the market studies indicated would lend to 75 % of all income at Genomic Health. It was indispensable that this concern be addressed due to miss of clear guidelines on the country on what happens when the companies or the patients defaults on payment. Having looked at all the challenges that faced the launch of Oncotype DXtm it is clear that even with more studies being carried out in each country to turn to each challenge would non needfully supply unfailing grounds or complete informations of how the market topographic point will act one time Oncotype DXtm was launched nor will all the parametric quantities that dictate success or failure of the Genomic Health foremost of all time merchandise in the market topographic point, Oncotype DXtm determine if it will win or neglect. It is my belief that the lone manner forward of finding how the market will act is through the launch of Oncotype DXtm and thenceforth reference all other concerns and challenges as they come through consumer feedback, monitoring of merchandise success, rating of patients and continued betterment of the merchandise to turn to other factors that were had non been foreseen.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

The Nature and Effects of the Emergence of 'Globalisation' as a Essay

The Nature and Effects of the Emergence of 'Globalisation' as a Feature of the World Economy over the Last 30 Years - Essay Example So what does globalization really mean to the overall world economies in general and what are the real reasons for the increased expansion and global integration of the financial and the general goods and service markets? The concept of globalization is not a new one, with individuals, from scholars, politicians and economists having different viewpoints as to the reasons for globalization as well as the positive and negative consequences of increased economic and industrial integration. Even during the 1960’s and 70’s multinational corporations started to shift their long term operational focus from a domestic to a global operational infrastructure (Colander, 2002).The were a lot of reasons that contributed to the paradigm shift that help drive the globalization of our manufacturing and service infrastructures as well as our financial and monetary systems. Advances in transportation methods such as cheaper air transport made it economically feasible for corporations to transport goods quite quickly and affordably. Starting in the 1980’s, the personal computer has created a revolution in the way business and individuals interact with each other and it has provided cheaper data processing and storage costs. It has increased worker productivity and operational efficiency for all businesses in general. Coupled with the advent of the internet the computer with its inherent functionality of quickly being able to share technical information, ideas and the ability for a team of individuals to be able to cooperate and share information, solutions and ideas seamlessly from different corners of the world has simply revolutionized the way we do business, especially with the wider availability of broadband services starting in the 1990’s (Emilian, Marcel, Hurduzeu, Vlad, 2011). The computer age, technological and communication advances have allowed multinational corporations and nations to expand their economies to more easily integrate themselv es to the global trade and financial markets therefore benefiting from increased economic prosperity for many previously underdeveloped economies. The increased trade has allowed unprecedented levels of economic growth for many of the countries that have successfully positioned themselves in the global arena (Imf, 2008). The ability for a company to choose to operate out of any country is a very important aspect of globalization, where an organization can choose among many nations to source its materials, manufacturing and headquarters and therefore has shifted the industrial operational structure towards one driven by efficiency and profitability instead of national barriers. The nullification of previous import tariffs and general protectionism previously played by many countries has played an important part in the globalization of economic trade by decreasing the amount of tariffs and other obstacles in the international trade of goods and services. It has become a driving factor in the advent of economic and financial globalization. The minimization of trade barriers was created with the idea of optimizing trade, financial flows and providing the maximum level of opportunity for economic benefits to the participating corporations and international economies in a bid to drive a general economic shift to a more fully integrated globalize trade

Monday, February 10, 2020

Why are Oligopolies Tempted to Collude Even if it Means Breaking the Essay

Why are Oligopolies Tempted to Collude Even if it Means Breaking the Law - Essay Example A firm achieves maximum profits when it operates where its marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MC=MR). However, it is mostly not as easy as a question of operating at this point; the more competition the firm faces, the lesser it will be able to manipulate the consumers for its own economic gain (Sloman and Wride, 2009). The two extremes in market structures are (i) Perfect Competition and (ii) Monopoly. However, in real life, firms often operate somewhere in the middle of these two extremes. Such market structures are characterized by Imperfect Competition. There are two main kinds of markets that practice imperfect competition: (i) Monopolistic Competition and (ii) Oligopolies. Some famous oligopolistic firms are Pepsi, Coke, Nike, Adidas, Reebok and Nintendo (Sloman and Wride, 2009). In an oligopoly, the number of competitors is less and limited and there are high barriers which prevent frequent entry of new firms into the market. Barriers of entry may be created in the form of brand names, sunk costs, firm size, economies of scale, and large firm advantage (Boyes and Melvin, 2009). Competition between firms in an oligopolistic market is high and intense, it sometimes leads to price wars which become extremely detrimental for their effective functioning. In other instances, these firms choose to collude amongst themselves to minimize the downsides of operating in an oligopolistic market and to simultaneously maximize their profits. The products these firms make can either be differentiated or homogenous. Depending on the product type, there emerge two distinct kinds of oligopolies: pure oligopolies which produce homogenous products, for example the steel industry. Sometimes, however, an oligopoly may produce differentiated products; such oligopolies are called impure oligopolies. An example of such an oligopoly would be the automobile industry. The demand curve for both types of oligopolistic firms is downward sloping and fairly inelastic, there is also a degree of dependency on the reactions of competitor firms to price changes. Another key feature is mutual interdependence, which means that each firm is affected by the actions of its competitors and thus, whenever any firm is going to take an action, it does so with its competitors’ possible reactions in mind. Due to these circumstances there is a high degree of uncertainty in an oligopolistic industry because firms can never accurately predict how exactly their competitors will react to their actions and this any sort of action involves an inherent degree of risk (Sloman and Wride, 2009). In oligopolistic markets, there is price rigidity because setting product price is not at one firm discretion but a decision in which all firms are factored in. If one firm lowers price below market price, this can cause a price war where all firms start lowering their prices to match the initial decrease and this will continue and form a vicious downward price spiral. However, if one fir m raises its price above set market price, no other firm will raise its price to match it and the firm who raised prices will lose out as all its customers will shift to competitor firms who have the old, lower price (Bhaskar, 2007). Thus, in an oligopolistic market, prices mostly remain rigid and are not often seen increasing or decreasing as the prices in a perfectly competitive market that respond to the dynamic demand and supply levels. Therefore, the demand curve faces a kink at the existing market price level and market price will not change for small changes in production cost etc. (Sen, 2004). This is shown in the diagram below: